Terms of RW management
This modern stormwater management system approach is not only gaining ground in Germany but also worldwide and has several terminologies:
Decentralized or semi-natural stormwater management describes a concept for different approaches to rainfall in urban areas. Rainwater is not drained primarily through channel and pipe networks but retained locally, used, evaporated, infiltrated or throttled if needed. Decentralised rainwater infiltration and decentralized stormwater treatment are partial aspects of stormwater management.
"Stormwater Management" and "Best Management Practices (BMP)": These terms are used primarily in USA for stormwater management measures. However, the term BMP is not only limited to natural processes, but also to technical solutions.
Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUDs): is a term used mainly in UK and describes, similar to the German term, "natural rainwater management" small-scale decentralized rainwater concepts (CIRIA 2015).
Low Impact Development (LID) is mainly used in Asia (e.g. China). Under LID systems we can find; Green Roofs measures, Rainwater Harvesting measures, etc.
Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) or "water-sensitive urban development". This concept describes a different way of dealing with stormwater. The term is referred to the special link between urban water management and urban or open space planning. It is based on the same components of a decentralized stormwater management (Melbourne Water, 2015).
Blue Green Solutions: this term was influenced by the Blue Green Dream EU project (BGD). Again, the special relationship between stormwater management (Blue) and open space or green space planning (Green) is emphasized. It is based on the same elements as a decentralized stormwater management.
Used terminologies for alternative stormwater management
The above terminologies have the same derivatives in providing the components for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature. The main elements include stormwater management, climate adaptation, less heat stress, more biodiversity, food production, better air quality, improved energy usage, clean water and healthy soils, as well as the a better anthropocentric functionality.
The original purpose, in respect to stormwater systems, was the rapid dissipation of precipitation away from the cities. A modern water management system tries to re-define the old practice by a different, new and sustainable approach.
CIRIA (2015): The SuDS Manual (C753), CIRiA the construction industry research and information association, download unter www.ciria.org/Resources/Free_publications/The_SuDS_Manual_C753_Chapters.aspx
EPA (2015): National Menu of Stormwater Best Management Practices, United States Environmental Protection Agency, download unter water.epa.gov/polwaste/npdes/swbmp/
Melbourne Water (2015): Water Sensitive Urban Design , Melbourne Water, www.melbournewater.com.au/wsud